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初三升高中之英语定语从句知识点总结

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一、几个基本概念
  1.定语从句的定义:用作定语的从句叫定语从句。
  2.先行词:被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。
  3.定语从句的位置:紧跟先行词(名词或代词)之后。
  4.引导词:引导定语从句的词(包括关系代词和关系副词)
  ﹙1﹚关系代词:that/who/whom/which/as
  ﹙2﹚关系副词:when/where/why
  5.引导词的位置:位于定语从句之前(先行词之后)。【as除外】
  6.引导词的功能(作用)
  ﹙1﹚连接先行词和定语从句。
  ﹙2﹚在定语从句中充当一定的成分(关系代词充当主语或宾语,关系副词充当状语)
  7.定语从句的类型:
  ﹙1﹚限定性定语从句(主句和定语从句之间无逗号)
  ①直接由引导词引导定语从句
  The man who youre talking to is my friend.
  ②由介词+关系代词(whom/which)引导
  The man to whom youre talking is my friend.
  I need a pen with which I can write a letter.
  =I need a piece of paper on which I can write a letter.
  介词的选用可根据从句中的相关词组确定,该介词通常可以放在关系代词之前,也可放在从句之尾。例如:
  The man (who/whom/that) I talked about at the meeting is fromBeijing University.
  =The man about whom I talked at the meeting is from BeijingUniversity.
  The palace (which/that) I often pay a visit to was built in the 17thcentury.
  =The palace to which I often pay a visit was built in the 17thcentury.
  ﹙2﹚非限定性定语从句(主句和定语从句之间用逗号隔开)
  ①直接由引导词引导定语从句。
  ②由介词+关系代词(whom/which)引导。
  I live in a house far away from the city in front ofwhich is a big tree.
  There is an apple tree standing at the gate on whichare many apples.
  This is the man to whom I gave the book.
  ③由“代词/名词+of+whom/which”或“of which/ whom +名词/代词”(先行词指
  人用whom,指物用which)引导。One some any none all both several many most neither either等词、数词、分数或百分比与of whomof which连用。
  He has five children two of whom are abroad.
  (比较:He has five children and two of them are abroad.)
  We have three books none of which is/are interesting.
  (比较:We have three books but none of them is/are interesting.)
  除whythat不能引导非限定性定语从句外,其余引导词都可以,用法同限定性定语从句一样。但要注意以下区别。
  1.在形式上非限定性定语从句与主句有逗号隔开。
  2.非限定性定语从句的作用:它只是补充说明先行词的情况,翻译时可译成两个句子。
  The engineer whose leg was badly hurt was quickly sent tohospital.
  (那位工程师被很快送往医院,其腿部受了重伤)
  The engineer whose leg was badly hurt was quickly sent to hospital.
  (那位腿部受了重伤的工程师被很快送往医院)
  3.在非限定性定语从句中,任何引导词都不能省略(包括引导词在此定语从句中充当宾语在内)。指人做主语时只能用who做宾语时用whom
  指物做主语,宾语都用which关系副词用whenwhere,也不能省略。
  The man ______ is sitting on the chair is my father.
  The woman _______ I met yesterday is my Englishteacher.
  The city _______ is far away is very beautiful.
  He went to America ______ his parents live.
  He joined the Army yesterday ______ I left too.
  4.whose引导非限定性定语从句:
  The house whose window faces south is mine.
  =The house the window of which faces south is mine.
  =The house of which the window faces south is mine.
定语从句中关系代词和关系副词的基本用法。
  1.who/that指人是主格在定语从句中代替先行词,又作定语从句的主语,不能省略。
  Do you know the gentleman who/that is sitting there
  2.whom/who/that指人是宾格,在定语从句中代替先行词,又作定语从句的宾语(动宾或介宾)
  ①当作动宾(动词后接宾语)时,关系代词可省略。
  Do you know the gentleman (whom/who/that) we met just now
  ②当作介宾(介词后接宾语)时:
  介词不提前时,关系代词可省略;
  介词提前时,关系代词不可省,即介词+whom(指人时介词后的关系代词只能用whom)
  The man (whom/who/that) I spoke with is my teacher.
  The man with whom I spoke is my teacher.
  ★注:固定的动词短语(动词+介词)look for take care of等不能把动词与介词拆开,既介词不能提至引导词前。
  She is the right girl (who/whom/that) we are looking for.
  3.whose指人或物,是所有格“…的”形式。Whose+n.一起在定语从句中充当主语、宾语(动宾或介宾)即先行词的什么东西怎样了,whose不能省略。。Whose+n. = the +n. + of which/whom= of which/ whom+ the =n.
  I didnt find the desk whose leg was broken. (主语)
  He is the student whose pencil I broke yesterday. (动宾)
  The boss in whose company I work is very kind. (介宾)
  4.which/that 指物,指代先行词且在定语从句中作主语或宾语(动宾或介宾)
  ①当作动宾时,关系代词可省略。
  ②当作介宾时:
  介词不提前时,关系代词可省略;
  介词提前时,关系代词不可省,即介词+which(指物时介词后的关系代词只能用which)
  The house which/that was destroyed in the earthquake is weak.
  The pen (which/that) you found yesterday is mine.
  The games (that/which) the young men competed in were difficult.
  The games in which the young men competed were difficult.
  ★注:介词+关系代词即介词+whom/which(先行词指人用whom,指物用which)
  ★5.as指人或物,在定语从句中可作主语,宾语,表语或状语,不能省略。主要用于the same as…;such as…;so as…;as as…;as follows”固定结构中,形式固定此时的引导限定性定语从句。要用as代替who(m) whichthat引导定语从句:
  Such people as knew Hill thought he was honest.
  Such people as Hill knew thought he was honest.
  My hometown is no longer the same as it was.
  Here is so big a stone as no one can lift.
  The child knows as much as grow-ups (know).
  Id like to have the same books as are used in your school.
  He is not such a person as I expected.
  He will marry as pretty a girl as he can find.
  ★注:whichas可引导非限定性定语从句:可以指代主句中的一部分或整个句子的内容,whichas都可以指代主句中的一部分或整个句子的内容,有时可以互换。因此,当as/which指代前面的整个句子,或前句中的部分内容作定语从句的主语时,谓语用单数.
  Our team lost the game as/which was reported in the newspaper.
  She was terrified as/which I could see from her eyes.
  He married her as/which was natural.
  区别:
  ①as引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句前面、插在主句中间或放在主句末尾;而which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句后面。
  He married her as/which was natural.
  =As was natural he married her.
  Mark Twin is a great writer which/as is knownto all.
  =As is known to all Mark Twin is a great writer.
  ②as引导的从句有“正如”、“正像”之意,而which则无此意。常用句型有:
  as we all know as is known to all as everybody can see as is expected As is known/ said/ reported/ told/ we all know等。如:
  As we all know paper was first made in China.
  To shut your eyes to facts as many of you do is foolish.
  ③主句和从句有因果关系时,用which.
  Our class has won the football match which made us veryhappy.
  Bamboos are hollow which makes them very light.
  ④从句含否定意义时常用which.
  She didnt pass the exam which we couldnt expect.
  She didnt pass the exam as we expected.
  6.when关系副词:指时间。在定语从句中作时间状语,不能省略。此时的when还可用介词+which替换(此时先行词一定是表时间的名词)
  I still remember the time when I joined the League.
  =I still remember the time on which I joined the League.
  =I still remember the time (which/that) I joined the League on.
  7.where关系副词:指地点。在定语从句中作地点状语,不能省略。此时的when还可用介词+which替换(此时先行词一定是表地点的名词)
  I still remember the school where I joined the League.
  =I still remember the school in which I joined the League.
  =I still remember the school (which/that) I joined the League in.
  ★注:对关系副词when where的认识。
  ①. 先行词是时间的名词,并非都用关系副词when引导定语从句。
  Ill never forget the time (which/that) I spent in Beijing.
  ②. 先行词是地点的名词,并非都用关系副词where引导定语从句。
  This is the factory (which/that) he visited yesterday.
  ③. 当句型为It/This/That is(was) the first(secondlast) time引起的句子时用that连接其后的句子。此时的time是次数,不是时间。
  It/This is the first time that we travel.
  It/This is the last time that I shall give you a lesson.
  8. why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语,先行词通常为reason,不能省略。且why引导的定语从句只能是限定性定语从句。Why= for which
  I dont know the reason why he was late yesterday.
  The reason why(for which) he was late is that he missed the bus.
  ★注:当先行词为reason时,关系副词并非都用why
  This is the reason (that/ which) he gave/ explained to us.
  【判断用关系代词还是关系副词】
  从句缺少的是主语、宾语还是状语是确定用关系代词还是关系副词的关键。试比较:
  I will never forget the day (which/that) I spent in Hongkong.
  ( spent是及物动词,后缺宾语,因此用关系代词或省略 )
  I will never forget the day when/on which Hongkong returned to itsmotherland.
  ( 从句主谓宾结构完整,缺状语,因此用关系副词或介词加关系代词 )
  The reason (that/which)he gave for not coming to school yesterdayisnt believable.
  ( gave是及物动词,后缺宾语,因此用关系代词或省略 )
  The reason why he didnt come to school yesterday isnt believable.
  ( 从句主谓宾结构完整,缺状语,因此用关系副词或介词加关系代词 )
值得注意的几个问题:
  第一. 当先行词是物时,关系代词(that/which)只用that的情况。
  1.当先行词被序数词或形容词的最高级修饰时。
  This is the best film that has been shown this year.
  This is the first book (that) I borrow from the library.
  ★He is the first student that/who came to school today.
  2.当先行词为两个或两个以上分别指人和物的名词时。
  He talked about the teachers and the school (that) he had visited.
  3.当先行词本身是all的,用that(all that=what)
  All that (what) I want to say to you is Thank you.
  =All (what) I want to say to you is Thank you.
  Go over all that (what) we learned.
  =Go over all (what) we learned.(that在定语从句中充当宾语可以省略)
  4.先行词为something anything nothing everything thing时,用that.
  Ill tell you anything (that) I know.
  5.当先行词前有all much little many (a) few every some any no only the very one of the only the last the next等修饰语时。
  This is one of the books (that) Im very interestingin.
  ★ This is one of the books in which Im very interesting.
  This is the only book (that) I read.
  He is the only one of the boys that likes playing the piano.
  All the glasses that were on the table fell off onto the floor.
  6.(人,物),当先行词在以whowhich开头的特殊疑问句中时,用that引导以避免混淆.
  Who is the man that is talking with the lady
  Which of you that know the answer can come to the front
  7.当先行词是在定语从句中作表语时,用that.
  He likes the girl that she used to be.
  第二. 当先行词是物时,关系代词(that/which)只用which的情况。
  1.作介宾且介词置于引导词之前时.
  The room in which he lives is very large.
  2.引导非限定性定语从句时(主,宾都用which,都不能省略).
  Football which is a very interesting game is played all overthe world.
  The house which I visited yesterday is very large.
  3.which指整个句子的内容或部分内容,引导非限定性定语从句.
  He always makes fun of me which upsets me.
  第三.其他特殊情况.
  1.先行词是these those指人时,关系代词只用who.
  Those who are playing over there are my students.
  2.先行词是人称代词(he she)时,关系代词只用who.
  He who doesnt reach the Great Wall is not a true man.
  3.不定代词someone anyone everyone no one somebody anybody everybody作先行词时,关系代词用who.
  Anybody who breaks the rules would be punished.
  4.①先行词是the only one of +可数名词复数,在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句中的谓语用单数形式(因为此时的先行词是the only one,而不是of 后的可数名词复数).
  He is the only one of the boys that likes playing the piano.
  This is the only one of the books that is borrowed.
  ②先行词是one of +可数名词复数,在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句中的谓语用复数形式(因为此时的先行词是of 后的可数名词复数,而不是one).
  This is one of the students who are late.
  5.当主句缺先行词时,用the one 代替,但须注意:the one只能代替可数名词单数.如为不可数名词时,指什么用什么.
  Is this school the one I visited yesterday
  Is pop music the music he likes best
  6. 当先行词是the way,在定语从句中充当方式状语时(the way表“以…方式/方法”),引导词通常用that或省略,也可用in which.
  I dont like the way (that) you speak.
  =I dont like the way in which you speak.
  =I dont like the way (which/that) you speak in.
  【“介词+关系代词”十种情况】
  在定语从句中,介词+关系代词结构是一种较为复杂的问题。现就几种常见的介词+关系代词的结构浅析如下:
  1.介词+which在定语从句中分别作时间、地点和原因状语,代替相应的关系副词when wherewhy。如:I still remember the day on which (when) I first came to school.我仍然记得初来学校的那一天。
  The factory in which (=where) I work is a large one.我工作的工厂是一个大工厂。
  This is the reason for which (=why) he was late.这就是他为什么迟到的原因。
  2.介词+which(指物)/ whom(指人)在定语从句中作地点状语,表示存在关系,定语从句主谓一般要倒置。
  They arrived at a farmhouse in front of whichsat a small boy.他来到一处农舍,前边坐着一个小男孩。
  I saw a man on the head of whom stood a bird.我看见一个人,他的头上站着一只鸟。
  3.介词+ which(指物)/ whom(指人)在定语从句中作目的、方式或地点状语。这种结构中的介词一般受动词或介词后的名词所制约。如:
  Could you tell me for whom youve bought this coat?你能告诉我这件衣服是给谁买的吗?
  The man from whom I learned the news is an engineer.这人是一位工程师,我是从他那里得到这消息的。
  4.介词+which/whom,用于被动结构的定语从句中,作状语,说明动作的出发者。如:
  The wolf by which the sheep was killed was shot.伤害羊的那只狼被打死了。
  The man by whom the wolf was shot was a good hunter.打死狼的那人是个好猎手。
  5.不定代词+of+which/whom,在定语从句中作主语,说明整体中的部分,常用的不定代词有:both all any some each none most等。如:
  There are a lot of books here none of whichbelongs to me.这儿有许多书,可一本也不属于我。
  Yesterday Mary bought a few clothes all of which wereexpensive.昨天玛丽买了一些衣服,他们都很贵。
  6.数词+of+which/whom,在定语从句中作主语,说明整体与部分的关系。数词可以是基数词、序数词、分数或百分数。如:
  In our class there are fifty-four students twenty-fiveof whom are girls.我们班有54名学生,25人是女生。
  Two watches were stolen one of which wasmine.两只手表被偷了,其中一只是我的。
  7.名词+of+which代替whose+名词,在定语从句中作定语。如:
  I saw some trees the leaves of which (=whose leaves) were black with disease.我看见一些树,他们的叶子因害病而发黑。
  I live in a house the windows of which are all broken.我住在一所房子里,其窗都破了。
  8.介词+ which(指物)/ whose(指人)修饰后边的名词。如:
  It rained all night and all day during which timethe ship was broken into pieces.雨下了一天一夜,就在这期间轮船撞碎了。
  The driver was the man from whose room she had stolen the maps.司机就是那个人,她从他的房间偷走地图。
  9.形容词最高级+of+which/whom结构,在定语从句中,作定语,表部分关系。如:
  China has thousands of islands the largest ofwhich is Taiwan.中国有成千上万个岛屿,其中最大的是台湾岛。
  In our class there are twenty girls the cleverest ofwhom is Li Hua.我们班有20名女生,最聪明的是李华。
  10.介词+which+不定式。此种用法多见于正式文体中,相当于一个定语从句。如:
  At last he had something about which to write home.他终于有了给家里写信的内容了。
  He had no key with which to open the door.他没有开门的钥匙。
  He has a small room in which to live.
  【运用定语从句时应注意的几个问题】
  1. 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句的谓语动词应和先行词的人称和数保持一致。
  This is one of the books which were written by Mark Twain.这是马克吐温所写的书中的一本。(先行词是books,因此动词应用were)
  2. 关系代词或关系副词在从句中充当一个句子成分,因此要注意避免从句中句子成分的重复出现。
  This is the most beautiful place that I have visited it.
  This is the most beautiful place that I have visited. 这是我参观过的最美的地方。(去掉it,因that代替先行词the mostbeautiful place在定语从句中作visit的宾语,再加it就多余了。)
  The school where I worked there is a big one.
  The school where I worked is a big one.我所工作过的学校是一所大学校。(去掉there,因where既引导定语从句,又在从句中代替in the school作状语。)
  3. 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时不可省略。
  The books were on the table were given to you.
  The books that were on the table were given to you.桌上的那些书是给你的。(关系代词that作主语不能省)
  4. one of the +复数名词”后的定语从句中谓语动词的单复数情况。
  “one of the +复数名词”时,复数名词是先行词,所以谓语动词常用复数形式。如果“one of the +复数名词”前面有the very /only等修饰语,则谓语动词用单数形式,因为先行词是,而不是复数名词。如:
  He is the only one of the students who speaks Japanese in our class.他是我们班唯一说日语的学生。(the only one是先行词)
  He is one of the students who speaks Japanese in our class.他是我们班里说日语的学生之一。(students是先行词)
  5. 定语从句中whowhom的选用。
  关系代词who/whom引导定语从句时,作主语用主格who,作宾语用宾格whom。在其引导的定语从句带有插入语,而又不用逗号分开时,要用who
  Mary is a girl who I think is clever.
  在定语从句who I think is clever中, I think是插入语,去掉后Mary is a girl who is clever是一个完整的句子,who是定语从句的主语,不能用whom替换。但下面的句子,情况就不同了:
  Mary is a girl whom I think to be clever.在定语从句whom Ithink to be clever中,如把I think看作插入语而去掉,则剩下的部分Mary is a girl whom to be clever很明显不是一个完整的句子结构,所以Ithink不能被看作是插入语,而是定语从句在的主谓结构,whomthink的宾语,to be cleverwhom的宾补。
  6. 定语从句中关系代词或关系副词的选择取决于它们在从句中所充当的句子成分。如作主语和宾语用关系代词;作状语,用关系副词。
  Ill never forget the day when I went abroad myself.(when在从句中代替时间状语onthe day,此句可分解为Ill never forget the day. I went abroad myself on the day.)
  Ill never forget the days that we spent together.(that代替the days,在从句中作spent的宾语,该句可分解为Ill neverforget the days. We spent the days together.)


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